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JMBS 2017, 2(7): 23–26
https://doi.org/10.26693/jmbs02.07.023
Theoretical and methodical aspects of physical education and sport

Theoretical Basis for the Formation of Technical Training of Athletes with the Help of Precise Movements Control

Klimenko Yu. S.
Abstract

The high level of modern sport development requires the effective decision of basic problems of perfection in theory and methods of training process control, rational application of modern technology of preparation of sportsmen. Today perfection of technical mastery is examined as an important component part of the special preparation of high level sportsmen. Numerous attempts to understand and analyze the essence, conformities to law and prospects of development of a person’s further abilities, that is offered during great while by the specialists of many types of sport, led to forming the whole system of knowledge in theories of sport techniques. The purpose of the article is the theoretical analysis of literature concerning perfection of technical preparation of playing sport athletes, interdependence between preciseness of movements and different sensory functions. Steadily growing level of achievements in modern sport competitions in particular world championship bring the requirement for permanent perfection in sport training. The theory of the functional systems allows more objectively investigate motives of athletes’ activity. The principle of «quantum» system allows to divide all training activity or educational-training employments into separate discrete segments – «quanta», that include a necessary social and biological necessity that arises up on the basis of dominant motivation. Application of principles of «quantum» system to training employment also allows undertaking an analytical study of the purposeful special motive activity in the real terms of the sport training. This method gives an opportunity to define the «physiology» cost of stage achievement and eventual training scores and, at the same time, to educe «weak links» in the achievement of training end-point. Analyzing the state of interdependence of motion preciseness and sensory function it is necessary to mark that each of the investigated sensory functions necessarily participates in management motions and changes during training and preparation stage of sportsmen. The physiology mechanism of motions management in high qualification athletes is urgently corrected on the basis of permanent exchange of information between muscles and starting vehicles of central nervous system. There are three types of motion coordination: nervous, muscular and sensory. The research results of interdependence between motion preciseness and sensory systems show that each of the investigated sensory systems brings its part into precise movement management and their changes during training and preparation in accordance with the intensity of physical activities. It was also proved that at the beginning and at the end of training the preciseness of movements depends on the level of sensitiveness and firmness of the vestibular system. But this dependence changes with intensity of loading and the level of training. Thus, the leading role in forming movements’ preciseness belongs to the sensory systems. Forming the integrated functional system includes specific executive components and heterospecific functions. It is important to mark, that the positive effect of application of the special exercises in the process of training was accompanied by objective changes: increasing the training loading intensity for preciseness of movements; exactness of information perceived and sent to the centers of sensory system management in every «quantum» training; improving movements preciseness due to synchronization of sensory parameters connected with motive activity.

Keywords: precise movement control mechanism, technical preparation, principle of "quantum" system, competitive activity, technical actions

Full text: PDF (Ukr) 176K

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