ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
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JMBS 2017, 2(5): 171–174
https://doi.org/10.26693/jmbs02.05.171
Biology

Influence of Vestibular Load and Vegetative Status on Sports Results of Highly Qualified Fencers

Andreiuk N. L.
Abstract

The article summarizes the scientific achievements of researchers on the status of the vestibular apparatus of a human and the impact of training on its stability. It was emphasized that scientists had paid little attention to the vestibular selection and stability of the vestibular function in fencers. The role of the vestibular system for fencers is determined. It is revealed that there is a great number of different movements, deviations, strokes and injections with a sharp change in combat distance, acting on the vestibular analyzer of an athlete. The organism reaction to various accelerations, strength abilities, motor efficiency, motor endurance, coordination abilities of athletes is in direct dependence on the functional state of the vestibular analyzer. It was emphasized that correctness and precision of movement of fencers during the irritation of the vestibular analyzer depend on the level of vestibular system resistance to irritations and the threshold of its sensitivity for exact orientation in space. A fencer’s vestibular analyzer receives very large and varied loads during competitions and training. It is noted that the main criterion for evaluating the functional state of the vestibular analyzer of athletes is adequacy of the nystagmus reaction to stimulus strength and the degree of severity of vegetative and sensory responses. The study of the functional stability of the vestibular analyzer can be estimated for shifting arterial blood pressure and pulse rate with rotational load. The level and dynamics of the cardiac rhythm in a state of rest and at certain influences are used as leading parameters in many tests to determine a state of systems of vegetative provision, necessity of evaluating properties and qualities which are of paramount importance to athletic achievements of fencers. The frequency of heart rates were measured using the pulsometer of Polar Company while conducting the research of the effect of vestibular loading on the cardiovascular system of highly qualified fencers. Arterial pressure of athletes was measured by the method of Korotkov. Indicators of blood pressure and heart rate were determined before and after loading. 30 highly qualified fencers, who received the ISU and KSSU grades and are members of the national team of Ukraine in their age categories were surveyed during the research. Initially we conducted the study of physiological characteristics, including heart rate and blood pressure before and after vestibular irritation. Then the level of vestibular stability was evaluated. Next step was to determine the primary fencers’ vegetative status, which was calculated according to the index of Kerdo. After that, based on these data, groups of athletes were formed depending on the initial vegetative status. According to the results of calculating the vegetative index of Kerdo, the athletes were divided into three groups - parasympatotonics (13 persons), sympathotonics (8 persons) and normotonics (9 persons). The result of collecting information about the vegetative status of the athletes and the level of their vestibular stability was the research of the relationship between success of fencers’ competitive activities and the level of vestibular stability and the initial vegetative status. The criterion for success of the competitive activities of the surveyed athletes was their place in the ranking of fencers in Ukraine. Fencer’s place indicator in the ranking was compared with his vestibular stability and peculiarities of his vestibular regulation (vegetative status). The obtained data testify that, although vestibular stability affects the result of competitive activities of highly qualified fencers, this effect is not decisive. However, taking into account that almost all the investigated fencers who received good results of vestibular stability are members of the Ukrainian national team, we can assume that high vestibular stability is an important condition for the growth of athletic skills. In the study of relationship between characteristics of the autonomic regulation of athletes and their results, we outlined a group of athletes, who had an average higher sporting results depending on the initial vegetative status. Thus, it was noted that athletes parasympatotonics (the average result in the ranking - 11.8) showed the best results while sympatotonics (the average result in the ranking - 21) had the worst results. In the future, the research data should be expanded in order to determine the impact of fencers’ vestibular stability on the further growth of young athletes’ results in sports improvement groups.

Keywords: vestibular load, Kerdo autonomic index, sympathotonics, parasympatotonics, normotonics

Full text: PDF (Ukr) 204K

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