The article examines the relevance of using testing as a method of pedagogical ranking according to the level and quality of knowledge. Current study presents the history of tests origin and the first steps of their use in Europe. Testing has a lot of advantages, such as: standardization, accuracy, specificity, efficiency, narrow focus of tests, etc. Tests classification by complexity, targeting at revealing of specific skills or knowledge of the test-taker makes this method of control an integral part of teacher’s practice. The purpose of the article is to discuss advantages and disadvantages of using testing control in higher educational establishments. The authors analyze the difference between testing and other various methods of knowledge control. Testing (from the word test – exam, checking) is widely used nowadays to determine the relevance of the item to the defined specifications. Main task of testing does not include determining the reasons for non-compliance with the requirements. Testing is one of diagnostic tools. Testing is used in engineering, medicine, psychiatry, education to determine whether an object of testing matches certain parameters. The test can be defined as a standardized, concise, time-limited exam, aimed at identifying quantitative and qualitative individual distinctions. By means of testing it is possible to check level of knowledge, abilities, skills, etc. From the perspective of pedagogical measurements, it is useful to introduce two general indicators of the knowledge quality – the level and structure of knowledge. They are evaluated through marks registration, both for knowledge and for ignorance of all the required components of the checked material. For objectification of this process all components must be the unified. The rules of evaluation are also the same for those passing the test. These conditions enable an objective comparison of individual level of knowledge or ignorance. The level of knowledge is determined by analyzing answers of each test subject to all test tasks. The higher the number of correct answers, the higher the individual test score. This test score is associated with the notion of "level of knowledge" and undergoes a procedure of more precise definition based on certain model of pedagogical measurement. The same level of knowledge can be obtained at the absence of answers given to different tasks. Tests can be divided according to many features. The main classification – according to the purposefulness of the test: human’s abilities, his/her personal qualities, intelligence, mental functions (attention, memory, imagination), knowledge is the subject of evaluation. Moreover, traditional and non-traditional tests groups of tests were distinguished during the research. Traditional test is characterized by its composition, integrity and structure. It consists of tasks, rules of their application, estimates for each task performed and recommendations for the interpretation of test results. The result of a traditional test depends on the number of questions in the assignment, for which the correct answer was given. Non-traditional tests: non-traditional tests include integrative, adaptive, multi-level and, so-called, criterion-oriented tests. An integrative test is the test, which consists of a system of tasks aimed at a generalized, final diagnosis of preparedness of educational institution graduate. Diagnosis is made by means of such tasks the correct answer to which requires integrated (generalized, interrelated) knowledge of two or more disciplines. An adaptive test – is a variant of an automated system of testing, in which parameters of complexity and differentiating ability of each task are known in advance. This system exists in the form of a computer bank of tests, sorted according to the characteristics of the tasks. The most important feature of adaptive test’s tasks is the level of their complexity, which is determined empirically: before being included in the bank of tests, each task undergoes a practical testing on a sufficiently large number of typical students, contingent which is of interest to the researcher.
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