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JMBS 2016, 1(1): 241–245
https://doi.org/10.26693/jmbs01.01.241
Physical training and Sport

Manifestation Neurodynamic Functions and Vegetative Regulation of the Rhythm of Heart in Prestarting Reactions of High-Class Athletes

Korobeynikov G.V., Korobeynikova L.G., Mishchenko V.S., Rychok T.M.
Abstract

The sport activity is a kind of extreme human activity. Sport activity and especially competition is characterized of presence the substantial psycho-emotional tension. In before of competition period on the athletes influence a large amount of external factors which correlated with force of psycho-emotional tension. Apart from, the states before responsible competitions are characterized of main physiological changes that occur on the eve of a specific period of time. Manifestation of before starts reactions are relation with excitation and inhibition of central nervous system that reflects of activation of neuro-muscular apparatus, neuro-endocrine system and circulation system. In psycho-emotional tension conditions which arise in before competitions and competitions period are activation of sympathetic-adrenalin system that related for optimized of psychophysiological reactions of athletes. One of the main links of functional system that responsible for results of activity is system of autonomic regulation of heart rate. The purpose of work the study peculiarities of manifestations of neurodynamics functions and system of autonomic regulation of heart rate of athletes in extreme sport activity. The 21 healthy elite athletes, members of Greco-Roman team of Ukraine were studied. A study conducted during the international tournament in Greco-Roman wrestling on the eve of the competition and, directly, on the day of the competition. The parameters of neurodynamics function and heart rate variability. The psychic health was estimate by color test Lusher. Analysis of data of test Luscher showed the presence of significant differences between the state on the eve of the competition and, directly, as in terms of competitive activity on indicators of fatigue and vegetative factor that reflects the exhaustion of the nervous system and the dominance of the majority of elite athletes sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Based on the research of reactions neurjdynamics functions in elite athletes in action extreme psycho-emotional factors of competitive activities should be noted manifestation of excitation of the nervous system. Increase speed processing of external information in rlite athletes in terms of competitive activity with simultaneous growth is spontaneous, not prepared decisions and actions. Before the start reactions of autonomic regulation of heart rhythm characterized by increased levels of stress mechanisms of vegetative regulation of elite athletes in terms of competitive activities. The observed dynamics of autonomic regulation of heart rate indicates a suppression activate sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system in elite athletes under the influence of competitive activities. It should be noted that in extreme psycho-emotional stress observed prevalence steps higher autonomic centers on cardiovascular subcortical center with the transition to the level of metabolic and neurohumoral regulation of heart rate in athletes. The simultaneous growth microwave range of the spectrum amplitude oscillations cardio indicates the presence of emotional stress due to the level of activity of segmental structures and enerho shortage ergotropic states. The dynamics of skaterogram in terms of competitive activity in elite athletes is consistent with changes in standard deviation RR- intervals, indicating the degree of increase in stress regulation of heart rate by aperiodic and periodic oscillations by activating the sympathetic tone of the autonomic nervous system.

Keywords: elite athletes, neurodynamics functions, before competitions and competitions states, autonomic regulation of heart rhythm

Full text: PDF (Ukr) 114K

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