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JMBS 2016, 1(1): 135–138
https://doi.org/10.26693/jmbs01.01.135
Biology

Macroscopic Features Spleen Vertebrates (Literature Review)

Dunaievska O. F.1, Vasylchenko V.2
Abstract

The spleen - an important peripheral lymphoid organ that performs filtration, cleansing, immune, hematopoietic, accumulation of blood function. Interspecific differences in the structure of the spleen depending on the dominant functions it performs in different animal species, in most cases. Form spleen variable depending on the structure of neighboring authorities and depend on the type of animal: sickle, oval, flat, trohhranna elongated, oval-elongated, stretched with an extended bottom end, elongated flat, variable, but more elongated. Color spleen determined type of animal physiological state of the body and can be a gray-purple, red-purple, red-brown, dark red, dark brown, reddish-brown. In cattle marked sexual dimorphism body color: cows spleen red-purple, bulls - red-brown. In mammals the spleen entirely located in the abdomen under the left costal region (one-hoofed ruminants) on a large curvature of the stomach in ruminants in the rumen may slightly go beyond the last rib (omnivores, deer), or reach the left groin (predators). There are animals in which the spleen is outside under the left costal region areas and is only left longitudinal and inguinal areas (mozolenogih). In tailed amphibians, reptiles and birds kept front area, so the spleen lies near the stomach. Spleen - is one of the most moving of the peritoneum, but has expressed its locking effect ligamentous apparatus pressure surrounding organs, intra-abdominal pressure. Anomalies fixing spleen lead to twisting (torsion), which may pose a threat to life or so wandering spleen can lead to hemorrhagic infarction in the body. Birds spleen often is globular, sometimes shaped look like an ellipse or elongated, rounded, weighing 3.5 grams, located between muscular and glandular stomach; goose in red and purple, the chickens' secundines red-brown. In amphibians spleen has a spherical shape. Spleen frog - a reddish body, in form similar to bean, located dorsally in relation to the front end and attached to the cloaca ripples. In reptiles form the spleen varies widely. In extended spleen lizards, snakes is oval and globular in turtles it is rounded and flattened. The size and weight of the spleen different mammals. The spleen deer has a length of 28-33 cm, width 17-21 cm, weight 570-650 g; reindeer - 28-33 cm, 17-21 cm and 570-650 g, respectively. Horse spleen length of 30-35 cm, the absolute weight is 500-1500 g, relative - 0,2-0,35%. In pigs, it is long about 38-45 cm, 5-8 cm wide, the absolute weight of 150 g, relative - 0.2%. In dogs, the spleen is flat, the absolute weight of 35-70 g, relative within 0,08-0,4%. In cats spleen rich dark red color, the absolute weight 5 g, relative - 0.2%. In cattle spleen length of 40-50 cm, width 10-15 cm, thickness 2.3 cm, weight 350-1000 g, relative to the weight of her body weight in 0.16% bulls, the bulls - 0.15% cows - 0,17%. In sheep spleen absolute mass of 120-160 g, relative - 0.15%. The average weight of the spleen nonlinear laboratory mice is about 0.18 g. Maximum length of spleen in male hamsters was 4.0 cm in the 90-day age, minimum 0.6 cm in newborns, 3.4 cm in 270-day age, maximum value - 221.0 mg in 240-day age. Sometimes there are additional lien of various sizes, the number of additional part can reach 100, which are located near the main body, but may rather remotely, even to the scrotum, they are often located at the gate of the spleen, gastro-splenic ligament.

Keywords: spleen, topography, form, color, mass, relative mass, vertebrates

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