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JMBS 2016, 1(1): 114–119
https://doi.org/10.26693/jmbs01.01.114
Biology

To a Quesion of Cost Problem Catching Small Mammals at the Scientific Purpose in Dnipro-Orel’s Natural Reserve

Antonets N.V.
Abstract

The results of long-year investigations catching of small mammals in territory the reserve are presented. Under carry out calculation small mammals in territory the reserve take at the traps as vertebrates (moreover small mammals, birds, frogs, lizards) and also anvertebrates animals (Coleoptera). In all destroy 50 different species of anymals. On the another aspect at the time cartching take the traps Gero take place ruin very much small mammals (4011 individuals at our occasion). This is sorrowful. However from terrytory previous of the USSR use utilization exactly method traps Gero (from unification). Such of high cost was pay possibility from studed small mammals at the Dnipro-Orel’s Natural Reserve and solution enumerate in this paper problems: was mounting species composition is 15 animals (Apodemus agrarius, Sylvaemus sylvaticus, S. uralensis, Neomys fodiens, Sorex minutus, S. araneus, Crocidura leucodon, C. Suaveolens, Sicista subtilis, Micromys minutus, Mus musculus, M. spicilegus, Rattus norvegicus, Microtus levis, Arvicola amphibius); was studed this biology and ecology (peculiarity nutrition, reproduction); reading that dinamics of number phone species micromammalia take place tight boud from 11-th cycles of sun activitti and permission make prognosis from perspectiv or retpospective plane; from very actual materiale was studed species-double: Sylvaemus uralensis – S. Sylvaticus, Mus musculus – M. spicilegus and Microtus laevis is a species-double M. arvalis and determine this diagnostis define; bring to light 2 now species from Dnipropetrovsk Region (or reserve) is a Sylvaemus uralensis and Microtus laevis; also carry out scientific investigation a species-double micromammalia and determine parameters his definition at the natural condition; further was studed morphometrics and kraniometrics indexis species family Apodemus (Sylvaemus); moreover was analyse influence of various antropogenous (human) factor from phauna small mammals (introduction pine-tree from arenas of Dnipro River, the autumn fire in sandy steppe and planting seedling of pine-tree at the sandy steppe before fire under plough tractor) from microtheriophauna sandy steppe and in particular, her dominant, a wood mouse - Mus musculus). Adduce the recommendations by reestablishment sandy steppe and her inhabitants from fire area; was acknowledge absence from Dnipropetrovsk Region species Microtus arvalis and showed that here inhabit Microtus laevis, but not M. arvalis, as assert zoologists of Dnipropetrovsk National University; was bring to light and studed phenotipical changeabling sandy steppe and flood-land forms mammal Microtus laevis (so, at the flood-lands territoryes relative of long standing of number Microtus laevis almost in 3,5 one higher than from in a lot sandy steppe. The mammals from flood-lands area have more dark colour fur than at the sandy steppe (even at the young species). Microtus laevis at the flood-lands territoryes smaller than those, that inhabit at the sandy steppe (they have considerable low body indexis: L, Ca, Au, Pl, P); also was analysis influence antropogenous factors from phauna small mammals (planting pinus tree from Dnipro arenas, influence pirogenous factor and plough sandy steppe with purpose planting pinus tree). Introduction pine-tree from arenas of Dnipro River in Dnipro-Orel’s Natural Reserve have negative influence from preservation biodiversity lots of sandy steppe: lead to simplify structure - lowering species richness micromammals with 10 from 4 species, firmness co-society and fall rare species (Sicista subtilis), also installation evretopos (Sylvaemus uralensis) and gidrofilus species (Apodemus agrarius) at the ckouse pine-tree. Pirogenous factor in condition at the sandy steppe leard to pirogenous succession, lowering species richness micromammals with 10 from 4 species (simplification structure) and firmness co-society, growth index Sylvaemus sylvaticus (wich 76,58% frоm 90,75%) also to drop rare species. From plough up under tractor areas sandy steppe take place destruction vegetable cover and drop from composition co-society dominant - Sylvaemus sylvaticus wich following substitution this on the cosmopolite – wood mouse (Mus musculus). A species richness micromammals lovering with 10 at the etalon from 1 species to plough up under tractor areas sandy steppe; was studed rare and Red Book species; was showed that Dnipropetrovsk Region inhabit (Sicista subtilis loriger), but do not (Sicista subtilis loriger), what assert zoologists of Dnipropetrovsk Natural University; was establishment phauna ectoparasitas of micromammals at the Dnipro-Orel’s Natural Reserve and from Dnipropetrovsk Region (67 at the Region, from theirs – 62 at the Reserve); on the basis from of long standing investigation was studed dinamic of number small mammals and predatory activiti of red fox in Dnipro-Orel’s Natural Reserve. Investigation of monitoring red fox from reserve (1991-2009) was determine considerable fluctuations of number (from 2 for 69 person). Bring to light 8-10-th ciclical change of numder from 3-th multiple amplitude vibration. Between “big waves” observation “small waves”, that was repeated each 4-5 years. Was determine that 3 peak from dynamics of number red fox: in 1998, 2002 and 2008 wich very high density population this species, what dangerously epidemiological – red fox is a bearrer hydrophobia. Regimen of reservation guarantee high density inhabit this species and myself reservation is dangerous nidus of infection hydrophobia at the Dnipropetrovsk Region. Was determine that peak of number with red fox (2002, 2008) to by coincidence on a year lowering of number small mammals and depression her number (2003, 2009) get the better of depression by small mammals. Therefore principals factors which limited of number red fox at nowadays is - epizootiya hydrophobia and depression of number principal fodder object – small mammals et. cet. Howvever do not withdraw small mammals from natural environment inhabitant analogical investigation do not possible. They live at burrows it is deep under earth and goings from surface at night. For all-round scientific study small mammals it is necessary receive great theirs quantity by means of cartching traps Gero, therefore that function justifiable.

Keywords: small mammals, cartching traps Gero, reserve

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